The current financial crisis spread to almost all the global industry, Chinese enterprises will naturally be inevitable. A few days ago, China's State Council, Chen Quansheng counselor pointed out that the global financial crisis under the weight of this year, China had 670,000 small businesses were forced to close, about 6,700,000 "jobs evaporated," so that the number of unemployed is much higher than official statistics 830 Million.
To address this issue, Premier Wen Jiabao during a recent inspection tour of Chongqing, in particular, require enterprises not to lay off easily, it is necessary to do everything possible to stabilize employment. Human Resources Department of Social Security, the Ministry of Finance and Administration of Taxation jointly issued a circular recently to take hold over the five social insurance initiatives to reduce the burden on enterprises.
The just concluded in Beijing's Central Rural Work Conference, but also highly concerned about the increased difficulties in employment of migrant workers, some of the problems of migrant workers returning home. Inside and outside the joint request, Duocuobingju, the maximum expansion of space to increase employment, migrant workers to deal with the implementation of policy measures to expand the industrial chain of agriculture, rural infrastructure and rural secondary and tertiary industries in the employment capacity.
"The Government's positive response, the next year to ease the employment pressure will play a role, but because of the financial crisis is global, would like to solve the immediate problem of employment is not an easy thing, great efforts still need to." Relevant to the analysis of the reporter .
Employment of migrant workers is a "big problem"
"At present financial crisis on the employment situation more and more influence than we expected at the beginning, from the current situation, the initial phase of the imagination than the much more serious." Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Institute of Population and Labor Economics by the Deputy Zhang Wei accept the car, "China Economic Weekly", said.
Chinese Academy of Social Sciences recently released report, China's urban unemployment rate has climbed to 9.4 percent (9.4 percent of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, "Social Blue Book" published by the data. The data, published by the Government as at end of the third quarter registered urban unemployment rate 4.0 percent for the two times more statistics), 2009 6,100,000 college graduates in the employment ratio may account for 1 / 4.
"Employment and economic growth of China's current stage of the characteristics of a great relationship, rather than a short period of time we can change that this year also coincides with the bad economic situation, the employment of university students are also more severe than in the past; but more severe Is the employment of migrant workers. "Zhang Wei, deputy director, told reporters that the current employment pressure, mainly from a number of export-oriented enterprises lay off, lay-off, close down, making a lot of migrant workers returning home ahead of schedule.
According to statistics, currently there are about 230,000,000 Chinese migrant workers, out of which only about 130,000,000. The "new force" in promoting China's modernization, has played a huge role, China has become an important component of industrial workers.
However, the international financial crisis, the most affected migrant workers are also labor-intensive enterprises are concentrated. Not long ago, the National Bureau of Sichuan, Henan, Anhui, Hubei, Hunan Province, five large labor force survey carried out quickly, the data is in advance of the return of migrant workers migrant workers out of the total volume of 5% to 7%.
According to the Ministry of Agriculture recently fixed observation point in 10 provinces and cities of the survey data, obtained in advance of migrant workers returning migrant workers accounted for 6.5 percent of the total. As a result, such as 6% estimated flows back to the National 130,000,000 migrant workers out of 7,800,000 people have returned ahead of schedule.
"This figure will be the Chinese New Year in 2009 and expanded rapidly. When the city for the migrant workers can no longer provide enough job opportunities, many of them will have to choose to remain in rural areas." One of the industry to tell "China's economy Week. "
In fact, the seriousness of the problem of unemployment, since 2008, after the first 3 quarters gradually. According to the Human Resources and Social Security Zhang Xiaojian, vice minister of the relevant occasions, in 2008 1-9 months, China's employment situation remained stable, the registered unemployment rate has been effectively controlled. To enter in October, the employment situation has undergone three changes. First, the urban growth rate of decline in the number of new jobs; Second, the employment needs of businesses declined; Third, the existing business of serious loss of jobs.
"This figure is nearly 10 years, few have. Migrant workers employed mainly in the industrial production sector, mainly in the secondary industry, the slowdown in industrial added value, means that the financial crisis really affected our country's real economy, on China's economy The impact has begun to show. "According to Zhang Wei, China's economic growth mainly driven by secondary industry," Under normal circumstances industrial value added of the secondary industry remained at 14% or 15%, down to such a Low, people are worried. "
"Three, as well as changes in the industrial added value in November showed that the current 'to the stability of the current employment situation in China as the top priority' was what appears to be important." One of the industry to the "China Economic Weekly" analysis.
"Structural unemployment" outstanding issues
According to Zhang Wei, has always been business-to-be migrant workers demand greater than supply, migrant workers can easily find a job, and business recruitment is difficult, or even a "shortage of migrant workers." "Labor Shortage" phenomenon first appeared in a number of major cities in the South. In recent years, with economic development, also appeared in other provinces and cities, "Labor Shortage". Labor-intensive manufacturing industries have been almost as a "labor shortage" and worry.
"Now those who worry the labor-intensive enterprises may not have had this to some extent to reduce the difficulty of the enterprise employment pressure will be a new level to achieve a new balance between supply and demand. However, this process will Structural unemployment. The next year structural unemployment, migrant workers in the performance would be more prominent. The Government should pay close attention to these issues. "Zhang Wei, said to reporters.
Structural unemployment is the result of the economic structure (including industrial structure, product structure, regional structure and so on) there is a change in the existing workforce the knowledge, skills and concepts, such as the regional distribution of adapting to this change, with the market demand does not match the trigger Unemployment.
"To solve the problem of structural unemployment, the Government has to release timely information related to employment and at the same time a number of new jobs for migrant workers to train." Zhang Wei said that because of the post and the mismatch between the emergence of structural unemployment, General will continue for a while, when these people know that the employment-related information, also carried out some simple training, this problem can be resolved.
"Multi-pronged approach" to resolve the problem of employment of migrant workers
In fact, in order to solve the problem of employment of migrant workers, stable employment situation, we must have policies for the business burden.
A few days ago, the Human Resources Department of Social Security, the Ministry of Finance and Administration of Taxation jointly issued the "Notice" pointed out that for the time being unable to pay social insurance premiums for enterprises, can hold over social insurance premiums next year, holding over the longest period of no more than Over half a year, workers should enjoy the social insurance benefits will not be affected. No layoffs or less difficult to lay off the enterprise can be used in next year's unemployment insurance fund to pay social security subsidies and post subsidies, subsidies for the longest period of no more than six months.
In addition, the "notification" to allow all over the next year can lower the appropriate basic medical insurance, unemployment insurance, industrial injury insurance and maternity insurance rates, but are not allowed to reduce the rate of old-age insurance premiums.
According to forecasts, these measures are in place, companies can step-down 1,000 billion burden, the stability of tens of millions of jobs, to maintain the stability of the current employment situation has played an active role.
Subsequently, in Beijing, the closing of the annual central rural work conference was also highly concerned about the increased difficulties in employment of migrant workers, some of the problems of migrant workers returning home.
The meeting proposed that migrant workers to encourage the development of agricultural products, secondary and tertiary industries in rural areas, eco-agriculture counties and small and medium enterprises. In venture capital, China will encourage and guide financial institutions to increase credit support to provide migrant workers return home with the start of the characteristics of financial products, migrant workers continue to increase the bank card feature of efforts to promote services. Migrant workers returning home venture owned by the Government to discount the item in accordance with the provisions of financial discount to help solve their difficulties in venture capital.
The meeting also required to promote integration of the new rural construction, innovation and small-scale rural infrastructure construction, institutional mechanisms to take food-for-work, Yijiangdaibu, and other means to organize and guide the return of migrant workers in rural areas to actively participate in the repair of dangerous buildings in rural primary and secondary schools and Vocational schools, town and township public health hospital, family planning reproductive health services, such as the construction of cultural facilities.
"In 2009 the employment of migrant workers is extremely critical, the rural economy and agriculture to maintain steady and rapid development is not only economic issues but also social problems. Expand employment channels for farmers, to alleviate various contradictions and promote social harmony is of great significance." Agriculture Sun Zhengcai, Minister of the Central Rural Work Conference said.